Recognition of β-cell antigens by autoreactive T cells is a critical step in the initiation of autoimmune type1 diabetes. A complete protection from diabetes development in NOD mice harboring a point mutation in the insulin B-chain 9–23 epitope points to a dominant role of insulin in diabetogenesis. Generation of NOD mice lacking the chromogranin A protein (NOD.ChgA−/−) completely nullified the autoreactivity of the BDC2.5 T cell and conferred protection from diabetes onset. These results raised the issue concerning the dominant antigen that drives the autoimmune process. Here we revisited the NOD.ChgA−/− mice and found that their lack of diabetes development may not be solely explained by the absence of chromogranin A reactivity. NOD.ChgA−/− mice displayed reduced presentation of insulin peptides in the islets and periphery, which corresponded to impaired T-cell priming. Diabetes development in these mice was restored by antibody treatment targeting regulatory T cells or inhibiting transforming growth factor-β and programmed death-1 pathways. Therefore, the global deficiency of chromogranin A impairs recognition of the major diabetogenic antigen insulin, leading to broadly impaired autoimmune responses controlled by multiple regulatory mechanisms.
…. more: Diabetes Journals (ADA) (Quelle/Source)