Since their discovery nearly five decades ago, molecular scaffolds belonging to the 14-3-3 protein family have been recognized as pleiotropic regulators of diverse cellular and physiological functions. With their ability to bind to proteins harboring specific serine and threonine phosphorylation motifs, 14-3-3 proteins can interact with and influence the function of docking proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and transporters that have essential roles in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Here, we will discuss the regulatory functions of 14-3-3 proteins that will be of great interest to the fields of metabolism, pancreatic β-cell biology, and diabetes. We first describe how 14-3-3 proteins play a central role in glucose and lipid homeostasis by modulating key pathways of glucose uptake, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and adipogenesis. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions of 14-3-3 proteins to calcium-dependent exocytosis and how this relates to insulin secretion from β-cells. As 14-3-3 proteins are major modulators of apoptosis and cell cycle progression, we will explore if 14-3-3 proteins represent a viable target for promoting β-cell regeneration and discuss the feasibility of targeting 14-3-3 proteins to treat metabolic diseases such as diabetes.
- 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed scaffolds with multiple roles in glucose homeostasis and metabolism.
- 14-3-3ζ regulates adipogenesis via distinct mechanisms and is required for postnatal adiposity and adipocyte function.
- 14-3-3ζ controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by regulating mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis as well as facilitating cross talk between β-cells and α-cells.
…. more: Diabetes Journals (ADA) (Quelle/Source)