As the worldwide prevalence of diabetes and obesity continues to rise, so does the risk of debilitating cardiovascular complications. Given the significant association between diabetes and cardiovascular risk, the actions of glucose-lowering therapies within the cardiovascular system must be clearly defined. Incretin hormones, including GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide), are gut hormones secreted in response to nutrient intake that maintain glycemic control by regulating insulin and glucagon release. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1Ras) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) represent two drug classes used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that improve glucose regulation through stimulating the actions of gut-derived incretin hormones or inhibiting their degradation, respectively. Despite both classes acting to potentiate the incretin response, the potential cardioprotective benefits afforded by GLP-1Ras have not been recapitulated in cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) evaluating DPP-4is. This review provides insights through discussion of clinical and preclinical studies to illuminate the physiological mechanisms that may underlie and reconcile observations from GLP-1Ra and DPP-4i CVOTs. Furthermore, critical knowledge gaps and areas for further investigation will be emphasized to guide future studies and, ultimately, facilitate improved clinical management of cardiovascular disease in T2DM.
…. more: Diabetes Journals (ADA) (Quelle/Source)